The American Culture in the Article by Horace Miner Essay

Who is Miner really talking about in this article?

In the article, the author is actually referring to a certain tribe in America that performs unique rituals. The major factor that stands out in the Nacirema tribe is that when the name is spelt backwards, it turns out to be American . As such, the author is simply referring to the rituals performed by an American. Whereas this may not necessarily describe the person whom the author is talking about, other indications in the article insinuate that the individual being referred in the article is an American.


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The article narrates the history of the formation of this tribe whose rituals are indeed very strange. The author indicates that the mythology of the tribe points towards its beginning. The tribe emerged from a hero called Notgnishaw. The hero was popular for cutting down a Cherry tree. The name Notgnishaw is actually Washington spelt backwards and the part of felling down the tree is popular among Americans.

In addition to the obvious spelling tricks, the author relates the rituals as daily happenings in an American citizen’s life. Miner portrays the habit as a strange and sinister culture that is closely related with hygiene and cosmetics. Surprisingly, the ominous, creepy and disturbing part of mouth rituals is actually not inappropriate.

Rather, the author is expressing a long drawn process that starts in the morning when an American cleans his teeth and continues with other important aspects such as medications which are used and returned in their shrines or cabinets. Miner speaks of a culture of repetition among Americans especially when visiting hospitals and taking drugs.

List of bizarre college rituals

University students have various strange rituals that freshmen encounter as they relate with other college students. These rituals are very common. Students wishing to participate in games often join gyms or other college groups. They are forced to perform them in order to become members. Some of the rituals include:

Eating grass before playing each game.

Stripping for prying camera shots for freshman class then the pictures front, side and back are pinned against a graph on the wall. The posture pictures are taken by those who seek to belong to a football team in a college.

Naked quad run

Civilian versus cadet snowball fights

Boob ranking

Boiling hot water on the back

Public body critiquing that involves critiquing a lady student’s exposed body

How does this article portray ethnocentrism?

When a particular culture is exalted above others, it is referred to as ethnocentrism. In the article, Horace Miner is satirical of the practices and culture of Americans that have been regarded as unique and of high standard than other cultures that seem primitive. Ethnocentrism is evident in several ways in the article as explained in the remaining section of the paper.

The ambiguous details of the American culture as related to hygiene and cosmetics denote a culture that is unique and exceptional to others. The bathroom rituals, frequent visits to therapists, doctors and dentists, and the body image which now involves shaving and breast implants demonstrate how other exotic or mysterious cultures are valued. The arrogance of western culture and lack of respect for other cultures are also brought out strongly in the article.


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Reasons Why not to Get a Tattoo Argumentative Essay

Lots of people find tattoos rather interesting because they make human bodies more beautiful and make people unique. In fact, these people just do not want to see how many cons of this activity may be and truly believe that this little picture on their body will make them better.


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So, the vast majority of people prefer to make tattoos just because to attract someone’s attention and be interesting to someone else. However, to my mind, it is better to be beautiful inside and be able to communicate with people properly. In this case, tattoos will never be a cause of good communication and attractiveness.

This is why I cannot agree with my child, who is going to make a tattoo on her body. Of course, young people can find lots of pros in order to make a tattoo; however, it is crucially important to take into consideration rather significant cons of tattoos and think more than one time before making this little picture on your own body

First of all, all teenagers change their mind lots of times within a short period of time. Tattoos are the things, which stay with people for ever. It is crucially important to think so many times in order to be sure that the chosen picture or phrase will be in accordance with her taste during whole life.

For example, Johnny Depp made a tattoo that read “Winona Forever” in order to demonstrate his love to his girlfriend. However, with time, they broke up, and Johnny had to change it into “Wino Forever”. Of course, he is a celebrity and can allow numerous changing on his body with proper medical assistance. Me daughter will hardly spend so much money just in order to change one her mistake into another.

Can you imagine an 80-year old grandmother with a tattoo “I love Rock & Roll” on her hand? Hardly! And if you meet such a grandma, you will certainly smile a bit. This is why children have to think about their future and how they will look like in several years.

It is necessary to admit that my child is a teenage girl, who does not think about future job and career. However, she should know that tattoos may considerably influence her future career growth. Usually, people should have a proper appearance to visit this or that public place.


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Lots of establishments do not allow their employees to have tattoos. One my friend has a pretty tattoo on her shoulder; and her job is really serious. Well, she has to change her style of cloth and buy lots of blouses with long sleeves, so that her boss never notices this forbidden tattoo.

Of course, it should be remembered that tattoos may cause certain problems with skin. If a tattoo is done within inappropriate conditions, it is quite possible to get some disease or infection. It is better to remind her that, one day, she will become a mom, and some problems with skin should not bother her and her future child.

So, is it so crucially important to make a tattoo, when you are so young? Maybe, it is better to make some temporary tattoo that can be removed with time. Even more, in order to ensure my girl that she can allow certain things, I will promise to provide her with the necessary financial help to make a temporary tattoo and even buy her another pair of shoes that will suit her new temporary tattoo.

The Case of the Ownership of the Violin Essay

This is a case on the ownership of a rare Guadagnini Violin made in the year 1768 that is being contested between a mother and her daughter. The daughter, Ann Rylands, studied in the reputed Juiliard School of Music and during her second year she borrowed it from the then owner who lived in Philadelphia and used the violin for a period of a month before returning it. She beseeched her father to purchase it for her which he aptly did by borrowing from his pension fund after which she made the commute to pick it up.


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For the greater part of her professional career which spanned a period of twenty years, she enjoyed full possession of the violin. However, she succumbed to a stint of alcoholism and while undergoing rehabilitation she left it with her mother foreseeing the need for its safe keeping. About the same time her father died and upon her release and requiring the return of the violin, her mother refused.

The violin had been in use for the past two decades by Ann in her professional career and had been exclusively purchased at her request for the sole purpose of aiding her in her musical career. At no point did her father express interest in the ownership of the violin and property in the violin had passed appropriately to Ann.

It was also not his intention to purchase it for her with limitations on the usage let alone its ownership. The rare Guagnini Violin was purchased for her by her father with no encumbrances whatsoever either from the previous owner or from her father. There had been no complications with the purchase and for the exchange of its value in monetary form the owner appropriately sold the violin to Ann.

It would seem that the only issue about the case that creates a twist to this case is the fact that Ann’s father borrowed from his pension fund to purchase the violin. This raises the question of whether the violin is still under the property of the estate of her father or belongs to her.

Then in that case if it falls under her father’s estate as compared to the property in the violin not falling under her does this exclude her from rightfully enjoying the use of the violin or what are the procedures of her acquiring it. Finally, the judge of this matter is to decide whether the mother has a right to the violin and consequently the ability to deny Ann the access to it.

It would seem that Ann’s father intended for the violin to be for her own usage and not to acquire the violin for his enjoyment or otherwise. The mere fact that he used his money, which, be it as it may was borrowed from his pension fund, does not mean that he acquired it for himself.


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The violin was picked up from its previous owner by Ann, the father did not check on the quality of the violin neither was he involved in valuation of the property or negotiations if there were any, he just paid the money for his daughter to purchase it. With these arguments the sole ownership of the violin is by Ann and no one can lay claim to it be it the estate of her father or her mother and in which case her mother is wrongfully holding her property from her.

Research Methods in Psychology Essay

‘‘Treat Reporters as Gentlemen’’ is a critical complain from the members of press that scientists’ actions are appalling; therefore not fitting to be role models. Researchers tend to offer modest and abstract information. They are habitually reluctant to divulge more details prompting people to view them as ill mannered.


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Researchers hardly use public relations divisions to relay information about their work, but instead legit, arrogantly answer queries posed by reporters with no credible reputation. Some researchers have little experience with reporters treating them ruthlessly and mercilessly. They respond to queries concerning their work with dishonesty.

Researchers are extremely selective over what they want printed for public and expert criticism, and are normally unwilling to share contacts. They usually address their displeasure especially when it is late. Some have inadequate knowledge of science and should upgrade their grasp in science issues so that scientists and editors may nurture the public understanding of science.

The article asserts that scientist must learn to acknowledge the importance of information dissemination and disclosure. It is notable that the article only mentions the steps taken as an organization in conducting this research through sending letters to leading scientists and science writers indicating their egotistical nature.

It indicates that the research was first published in the scholarly journal ‘‘Bulletin of the Atomic S. The authors wrote letters to leading scientists and science writers elucidating perceived scientists’ behaviors by reporters and editors. They argued that scientists were out of touch with reporters, unwillingness to cooperate, and ill mannered.

The authors then received responses from the scientists who gave their experiences with the reporters. This research design is correlation since it tends to relate perceptions of the reporters on scientists and their actual behavior by provoking their personalities by sending them harsh judgments. The popular version of this article only dwelt on the research outcomes but not the procedures of attaining findings and conclusions.

From the article, it is imperative to know how the original research was formulated, executed and the dissemination of findings.


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Another crucial aspect is the procedures involved in the development of research background, literature review, study methodology, data collection, analysis, together with interpretation and reporting the results. It is thus vital for the scientists to make a paradigm shift in their actions to erasure the negative perception the reporters and other citizens place on them.

“Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful” By Ariyachandra and Watson Essay- by EduBirdie


Over the course of the years, computers have become an integral part of the business environment. This has been as a result of their efficiency, accuracy, and speed which has revolutionalized the manner in which business is conducted.

Essay on “Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson

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An important concept that has risen with the continued usage of computers is that of Data Warehousing and various architectures of the same have been implemented.

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This paper shall summarize and analyze an article by Ariyachandra and Watson “Which Data Warehouse Architecture is Most Successful?” which attempts to provide an empirical research on the strengths of the major warehousing architectures in use today.

Article Summary

Ariyachandra and Watson begin their article by highlighting the fact that there exists huge controversies over which is the best data warehouse architecture. They articulate that the major architectures in existence are the “hub and spoke architecture” and the “dart mart bus architecture”. The authors lament that despite the importance that an architecture choice can have, there has been little research on the topic. As such, this article is intended to shed light as to the different architecture choices.

In their study, the authors primarily investigate 5 data warehousing architectures namely: “independent data marts, data mart bus architecture with linked dimensional data marks, hub and spoke, centralized data warehouse and federated.” The authors noted that while this was not a conclusive list of all the architectures in existence, this sample consisted of the core ones since other architectural types were a variation of the five.

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The study is achieved through a Web-based survey which is targeted at individuals who undertake physical data warehouse implementations at various organizations. The surveyed companies were small to large companies. From the study, it was discovered that the mostly popular architecture was the hub and spoke followed by the bus architecture. Since this data warehouses had to be used in conjunction with a platform, it was observed that the most common platform was Oracle followed by Microsoft.

Since there had to be a measure by which the relative success of a particular architecture was measured, the authors chose to use the following attributes: “information quality, system quality, individual impacts and organizational impacts.” By contrasting the score that each architecture acquired on this varied matrixes, the authors were able to compare the success of the different architectures.

Tech & Engineering ?

The findings indicated that Independent data marts were the least popular as they received the lowest score on all counts. The authors conceded that this was in line with the commonly held perception that an architecture that favored the independent storage of data was undesirable by most organization. reliable

The studies furthermore revealed that the 3 centralized architectures only had marginal differences in their average score. This emphasized the popularity with which centralized systems of data Overview storage were viewed in the industry. From these findings, the authors declare that none of the three architectures can claim superiority over the others.

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In conclusion, Ariyachandra and Watson acknowledge that the reason why the competing architectures have survived without any one of them gaining a significant edge over the other is because they are both successful for their intended purposes.

As such, organizations are content to utilize any of these three architectures since no single architecture is dominant in system quality of informational quality. The authors also note that as the differing architectures have evolved over time, they have become more similar in nature which explains their almost similar scores on the success metrics.

Analysis of the Article

Main Issues addressed

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The article underscores the importance of data warehouses to any organizations success. A data warehouse is a center of information and its administration and it is considered as a “subject oriented, integrated, nonvolatile and time variant collection of data in support of management’s decisions” (Blazewicz 393).

As such, the article asserts that making the right architecture choice for an organization’s data warehouse is an issue of great importance. While there exist numerous studies that describe the various architectures, the authors of this article illustrate that there is little to no empirical research through which the success rates of the various architectures can be compared.

The study that the authors undertake to fill this informational void that is created by a lack of studies dealing with data warehousing architectures reveals some important truths about the various architecture types in existence. The main discovery is that independent data marts are hugely unfavorable since they do not allow for interactive accessibility of information to assist in decision making.

Relationship of Article to the Course

The authors highlight at the start of the article that its major purpose is to investigate the successes of the various data warehousing architectures. The article places emphasis on the importance of a centralized database system, a fact that has been articulated in this course.

From the article, it is clear that at an industrial implemental level, centralized architectures are preferred to independent data architectures. This is because a data warehouse consists of a variety of different data that is collected, unified and updated and placed in a manner that is accessible for management support in decision making. In such a scenario, having a centralized integrated database is more useful than having stand alone databases.

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My Thoughts on the Article

I found the article highly useful as it gave a brief yet informative overview of the various data warehousing architectures and their success rates in the industry. In my opinion, the authors wrote the article in a clear and precise way which was highly readable.

They avoided overloading the reader with a lot of background information on the topic and instead concentrated on giving a discussion on their study, its findings and the significance of their findings. A figure was also utilized to show the five data warehouse architectures that were studied. By using this figure, the reader could at a glance tell spot the significant differences between each implementation. This was therefore a very effective mode by which information was provided in the article.

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The findings of the study which had been conducted by the authors were provided in a tabular manner. Not only was this a highly readable means by which to display the results but it also enabled one to compare the results for the different data warehouse architectures at a glance.

The authors also reconciled their studies with the commonly held perspectives that centralized architectures were superior to independent ones. The study conducted included a targeted web-based survey. Since the survey resulted in 450 respondents giving useful information, it can be said that this was a big enough data set from which the survey results could be obtained.

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The Survey also covered a wide range of companies (small to large companies) hence giving a plausible picture of what was happening in the industry. Various measures were also used to assess the success of a particular architecture in the study. This ensured that the completeness of an architecture was also taken into consideration since if an architecture fulfills only one measure and fails in the other, it cannot be said to be ideal.

However, the length and scope of the article was not appropriate given the depth of the subject that the article as discussing. While the concise manner in which the article was written might appeal to people who have a working knowledge of data warehouses, it is hugely undesirable to the non-expert reader.

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This is because the authors do not even offer brief descriptions of concepts such as “data warehousing” which are central to the article. This means that the article would be of little use to a person who did not possess at least a basic understanding of the subject. It is therefore obvious that the intended audience for the article is the technically savvy group which had an in-depth knowledge of the subject matter


This paper set out to summarize and perform a critical analysis of the article “Which Data Warehouse Architecture is Most Successful?” By Ariyachandra and Watson. The article gives a report of an empirical research in which the strengths of the major warehouse architectures are measured.

The contribution of this article is immense since a comparison of the major architectures has not being undertaken by other previous studies. However, the brevity of the article renders it unusable for the novice reader. Its appeal to an expert audience is however great and the information presented therein invaluable.

Works Cited

Ariyachandra Thilini and Watson Hugh. Which Data Warehouse Architecture Is Most Successful? Business Intelligence Journal, Vol 11, No. 1.

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Błażewicz, Jacek. Handbook on data management in information systems. Birkhäuser, 2003.

“The Matrix” by Andy and Larry Wachowski Essay (Critical Writing)- by EduBirdie

Table of Contents



Popular Culture Themes

Similar popular cultures in other films

Issues that emerge strongest

Sociological and cultural concepts

Reference List

Critical Writing on “The Matrix” by Andy and Larry Wachowski

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The matrix is a science fiction directed by Andy and Larry Wachowski. It was premiered in the theaters in the year 1999. It was produced by Joel Silver and distributed by Warner Brothers. The casts include Laurence Fishburne, Carry-Anne Moss, Joe Pantoliano, Keanu Reeves, Hugo Weaving, and Julian Arahanga.


Keanu Reeves who is a computer programmer in a blue chip software firm doubles up as a hacker known in the underground circles as Neo. He engages in all forms of computer crimes. He is not happy with the kind of life he lives.

He tries to redeem his image and bring meaning to his life while all of a sudden an unexpected computer presence, Morpheus appears on the screen of his monitor. It pronounces that the Matrix is with him and he should follow the white rabbit. Morpheus the captain of a space ship is Laurence Fishburne. He believes that Neo is the God’s messenger.

Laurence confesses to Neo on meeting him that all does not appear as he perceived. Laurence thinks that Neo is dubious and he intends to show him that he indeed is. Laurence who has learnt to manipulate the Matrix- a computer aided machine that is capable of controlling human minds. The Sentient agents stand on the way of Laurence and his associates from realizing their dream. The agents have been made to believe that Morpheus mission is to wipe from the surface of the earth the free thinking human beings.

The agents mission is to therefore to capture Morpheus and get to know the much details he has that may be helpful to their course. There is a very thin line between the reality and computer theatrics. This does not confuse the viewer. The structure of the story allows the audience to follow the action and comprehend what is unfolding the unrevealed secrets withstanding. For deeper understanding of the story line the viewer has to invest a reasonable level of intellectual participation.

Popular Culture Themes

In the Roman myths, Morpheus, is used to refer to the son of god of sleep that shaped dreams and sent people visions. Towards the end of the film, the metaphor of sleep and or waking up features as a key analogy of the thin line that appears between the underworld and the real world where Morpheus exists and where he introduces Neo to.

Because Morpheus is mythologically attached to sleep it is intriguing that the Morpheus that is feature prominently in the film is in touch with reality. In literal application, Morpheus implies one who shapes. For one to shape dreams he has to exist outside its boundaries hence be able to recognize them as dreams. This helps the viewers in discerning the character Morpheus in the film Matrix vis a vee the Roman Morpheus.

Film Studies ?

Activities of agent Smith especially when he is at the roof top are very similar to Arnold Schwarzenegger’s of the Terminator fame. This shows the film’s intertextuality. This shows that postmodern art is not founded in vacuum but is built from other arts and that represents real life. It is ironical that Matrix is all abut illusion versus reality. It is quite significant that the Matrix is all about salvation and redemption, atonement, and state of sinfulness.

Neo hides his money in disc form in a book called Simulacra and Simulation. The book is authored by postmodern theorist Jean Baudrillard. Jean contends in his book that the map precedes the territory (Baudrillard, 1994). He alludes that such images do become reality by themselves.

To him Gulf War was a virtual war comparable to video game displayed on monitors contrasted to real war that involve air raids and ground campaigns. This lends a lot to themes portrayed in the Matrix. The period within Neo starts featuring in the film is called Nihilism because during this period everything tends towards nothingness.

When Neo helps Troy with some money, Troy shows gratitude by saying the Neo is his Savior. He in fact tells Neo that he is his personal Jesus Christ. There are myriad Christian references made in the film. Troy and Neo engage in cyber crime known as hacking from where the virus Trojan horse associated with Greek Legend arise.

Similar popular cultures in other films

The theme of nature of reality and perception that features in the Matrix can also be found in Lewis Carroll’s Alice in the Wonderland. In fact the phrase follow the white rabbit is a direct reference from Alice in the Wonderland. Morpheus asks Neo how it feels following rabbit down the tunnel like Alice did. The situation in which Neo is in resembles Alice conversation with Tweedledee and Tweedledum. These twins tell Alice that she is in the Red Kings dream. The moment the king stops dreaming, Alice would be no more.

The theme of illusion versus reality that features prominently in the Matrix is also evident in the Terminator movies that highlighted atonement, salvation and redemption, and fallenness. Both the movies exhibit intertextuality.

Intertextual reference comes out in the Matrix when space horror film produced by Ridley Scott is borrowed from when a bug is planted in Neo’s stomach. It represents invasion of sin at various levels of human life. Despite the fact that sin is forgiven just like Jesus did at his crucifixion, its persistence implies Neo must be a malware to save the technological world from its mess.

Issues that emerge strongest

Issues of Christianity feature prominently feature in the film. Morpheus tells Neo that he has been looking for him. He asserts that he can actually guide him. Biblically, Morpheus can be thought to be the biblical Israel waiting the Messiah. In Christianity the crucifix is also known as a scaffold that is repeatedly talked about in the Matrix.. These words foreshadow the predicaments that Neo will face at the end of the movie. He dies to save ‘the world’ just like Jesus did.

Sociological and cultural concepts

Neo goes through a culture shock when he goes against the conventional rules in the society and is engulfed in new technological world, language, and culture. Elements of religion and metaphor are exhibited and one has to keep asking how modern day culture and religion converge in the matrix and how this movie connects to reality.

The viewer often asks whether “the one” is related to Christ and is capable of saving people from agents (Satan). The connection between the saved and the unplugged is shown. Hawethorne effect is shown when trinity suspects Neo has been bugged by the sentinels. The effect is exhibited when Sentinel changes her behavior because she suspects people watch and listen to her.

Reference List

Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and Simulation , translated by Sheila Faria

Glaser. Ann Arbor, Mi: University of Michigan Press.

“The Racial Contract” by Charles Mills Essay- by EduBirdie

Mills’ book explores the political philosophy of the social contract. “The Racial contract” was published at the end of the twentieth century, and it investigates the issue of racial relations in the world over 500 years. The book was considered controversial when it was first published.

Essay on “The Racial Contract” by Charles Mills

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However, the book has since become a useful tool in the study of political philosophy. The author explores several aspects of the social contract including Europe’s global domination, the relationship between whites and non-whites, the existence of full persons and non-persons, among Edubirdie other aspects. Using other existing philosophies, Mills shows how the racial contract has shaped the new world.

Mills’ philosophy is quite similar to both Marxist and Feminist based philosophies. According to Mills, philosophy is a discipline that is governed by its own set of “images, standard tropes, and classical scenes” (Mills 1).

When these aspects are merged with popular philosophical figures, they form a template that is synonymous with the philosophy discipline. This argument introduces the aspect of race in philosophy.

Philosophy is often considered a discipline of free thinkers who are not subject to racial and other vague inhibitions. However, Mills argues that just like in other academic disciplines, there are templates that shape philosophy.

The freethinking philosophers are guided by their interests as opposed to them delving into impersonal contemplations. Philosophy scholars find the likelihood of philosophers advancing ‘white-European interests’ unsettling.

However, a close analysis of some philosophers would validate this argument. Immanuel Kant and David Hume are some of the philosophers who have forwarded arguments that have elements of white supremacy.

Philosophy ?

Both of these philosophers believed that black people Reviews have inferior cognitive abilities. This means that racism is not essentially a preserve of the ignorant populous.

The academic elite of the postmodern era also perpetuates racism. The concept of ‘white philosophy’ seems outrageous but Mills’ argument is strong enough to validate it.

According to Mills, “racial contract is the central component of the social contract” (Mills 87). This means that racism is an inevitable component of global political and economic activities. The dominance of Europe in these two areas acts as proof of racial contract.

Given the elements of a racial contract are still ongoing, the current racial equality achievements are just a sham. The truth is that efforts towards equality are initiated to give the people of color a false sense of contentment, complacency, and security.

The current equality is also meant to make the people of color depend more on the white people who ‘spearhead’ the equality efforts. Most people consider this era to be post-racial. This implies that no racial barriers exist in the current world.

However, several events and scenarios cast doubt on this premise. For instance, when President Obama was running his first election campaign, the race issue was dominant.

During that time, people barely paid attention to his economic or foreign policies, but they were more fascinated with the idea of a ‘black president.’ If this were the post-racial era, the issue of skin color would not have been that prominent.

Moreover, there are those who feel that the election of a black president serves as a distraction to modern racial oppression. For example, cases of racial profiling by the police are still rampant; the only difference is that they do not get as much publicity as they used to in the Civil Rights era.

“The Racial Contract” intertwines the issue of race and political philosophy. The mode of analysis used by the author raises and answers very important questions. The author also addresses the turn taken by racial inequality convincingly.

Works cited

Mills, Charles. The Racial Contract , New York, NY: Cornell University Press, 1997. Print.